10 days than shook the world (John Reed)

Aprofitant les vacances he llegit un llibre que geia temps que tenia ganes de llegir però que sempre deixava apartat per mandra. El llibre és 10 days that shook the word (10 dies que sacjeraren el món) de John Reed.

El llibre és una crònica del periodista del American Socialist Party John Reed de la revolució russa d’octubre de 1917, dels mesos anterior i de la guerra civil posterior. De fet es considera una de les millor cròniques d’aquell importantí­ssim moment històric del S. XX.

El llibre permet apreciar la rica diversitat polí­tica de la russia de principi de segle que malgrat estar encara sotmesa a la monarquia absoluta tsarista experimentava una gran efervecència de moviments de caire comunista/socialista.

Un altre element important és que presenta els processos revolucionaris de febrer i octubre com a un sol procés revolucionari en el sentit que es pot considerar tot 1917 com un perí­ode constituent en el qual totes les opcions polí­tiques intenten posicionar-se i encaminar la revolució cap al seu objectiu polí­tic.

Vull destacar també la importància que dona el llibre a les bases i a la opinió i el paper del poble la qual cosa és poc habitual en un llibre d’historia. Prova d’això és que fins a la revolució d’octubre propiament dita parla molt poc, o gairebé gens, de Lenin, Trotsky, etc. així­ com la gran presència d’entrevistes i opinios que recull el llibre.

També és molt interessant veure tots els moviments dels primers dies d’octubre en els quals s’intueix que alguna cosa passarà però no se sap massa bé què així­ com totes les reaccions posteriors a la revolució boltxevic i a les seves primeres accions, moment en els qual proliferen les reunions, les assamblees, els comunicats dels partits i els diferents grups socials i polí­tics han de decidir si donen suport a la revolució boltxevic.

(…)
TO WORKERS, SOLDIERS AND PEASANTS

The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies has opened. It represents the great majority of the Soviets. There are also a number of Peasant deputies. Based upon the will of the great majority of the workers’, soldiers and peasants, based upon the triumphant uprising of the Petrograd workmen and soldiers, the Congress assumes the Power.

The Provisional Government is deposed. Most of the members of the Provisional Government are already arrested.

The Soviet authority will at once propose an immediate democratic peace to all nations, and an immediate truce on all fronts. It will assure the free transfer of landlord, crown and monastery lands to the Land Committees, defend the soldiers rights, enforcing a complete democratisation of the Army, establish workers’ control over production, ensure the convocation of the Constituent Assembly at the proper date, take means to supply bread to the cities and articles of first necessity to the villages, and secure to all nationalities living in Russia a real right to independent existence.

The Congress resolves: that all local power shall be transferred to the Soviets of Workers,’ Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies, which must enforce revolutionary order.

The Congress calls upon the soldiers in the trenches to be watchful and steadfast. The Congress of Soviets is sure that the revolutionary Army will know how to defend the Revolution against
all attacks of Imperialism, until the new Government shall have brought about the conclusion of the democratic peace which it will directly propose to all nations. The new Government will take all necessary steps to secure everything needful to the revolutionary Army, by means of a determined policy of requisition and taxation of the propertied classes, and also to improve the situation of soldiers’ families.

The Kornilovitz-Kerensky, Kaledin and others, are endeavouring to lead troops against Petrograd. Several regiments, deceived by Kerensky, have sided with the insurgent People.

Soldiers! Make active resistance to the Kornilovitz-Kerensky! Be on guard!

Railway men! Stop all troop-trains being sent by Kerensky against Petrograd!

Soldiers, Workers, Clerical employees! The destiny of the Revolution and democratic peace is in your hands!

Long live the Revolution!

_The All-Russian Congress of Soviets of_
_Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies._
_Delegates from the Peasants’ Soviets._
(…)

(…)
Imagine this struggle being repeated in every barracks of the city, the district, the whole front, all Russia. Imagine the sleepless Krylenkos, watching the regiments, hurrying from place to place, arguing, threatening, entreating. And then imaging the same in all the locals of every labour union, in the factories, the villages, on the battle-ships of the far-flung Russian fleets; think of the hundreds of thousands of Russian men staring up at speakers all over the vast country, workmen, peasants, soldiers, sailors, trying so hard to understand and to choose, thinking so intensely-and deciding so unanimously at the end. So was the Russian Revolution….
(…)

(…)
I suddenly realised that the devout Russian people no longer needed priests to pray them into heaven. On earth they were building a kingdom more bright than any heaven had to offer, and for which it was a glory to die….
(…)
“A great idea has triumphed. The West, and America, expected from Russia, from the Russian proletariat, something tremendous…. The proletariat of the world is waiting for the Russian Revolution, waiting for the great things that it is accomplishing….”
(…)

Fitxa bibliogràfica:
Tí­tol: 10 days that shook the world
Autor: John Reed
Any d’edició: 1919
Project Gutemberg: 10 days that shook the world
Marxist Internet Archive: 10 days that shook the world